Programming languages prove to be the bridge between the user and the device through which operating systems and applications are developed. There is an immense number of coding languages that serve different purposes.
Most of the in-demand jobs offered by agencies that offer website development services require an individual to know at least one programming skill. From data analytics to developing websites, programming languages have wide-ranging applicability. Even most modern web design trends require designers to at least have a basic level understanding of programming to create the required designs and then relay to the developer the exact trajectory through which they are required to be coded.
If you, too, are aiming to pursue a career in any of these in-demand industries, then you need to develop your skills for one or more of these programming languages to give you an edge over your peers for the near future.
But what programming language should I opt for? This is perhaps the most difficult question of them all. If you choose the wrong language to learn for programming, you will be left ruing your chances very soon, so you will need to know about the most trending programming languages today.
Here, we present a list of the best programming languages to learn in 2020, along with their pros and cons, to make you aware of their importance in the coding world.
Python came into being in 1991 by Guido Van Rossum, an open-source, free-to-download programming language with good features for beginners who have no or low coding knowledge. It is mostly useful for data analysis, deep learning, and machine learning. If you are interested in Artificial Intelligence, you should definitely consider learning Python.
- There are libraries where the user may find already written programs that are useful on different grounds.
- It is simple to read, easy to understand, and requires less coding than other programming languages.
- Python is versatile. One can write some part of the code in C++ or C as well. On top of that, it allows you to write programs for any OS, such as Linux, Windows, or Mac.
- Python lacks when it comes to execution. The step-by-step execution sometimes takes longer, making it speed limited.
- It is not recommended for mobile app development.
- Huge enterprises avoid using Python since it has underdeveloped database layers.
Java, invented in 1996 and owned by Oracle Corporation, is a widely-used programming language around the globe. It is generally known for its Object-Oriented Programming capabilities. It is complex as compared to Python.
Till now, it was the preferred programming language for Android until Kotlin superseded it. But still, Java has a lot of importance in the world of coding even now.
- Java uses automatic memory allocation and is simpler as compared to C++ or C.
- It is independent of the platform. It can easily work on any operating system.
- Java consumes more memory as compared to other programming languages that make it a bit slower than others.
- The garbage collector runs to manage memory. When it runs, it affects application performance.
Swift is an open-source programming language by Apple in 2014 and is suitable for Mac and Linux. It’s an emerging coding language mainly due to its simplicity. It is as simple as the English language itself. It is fast and secure and gives an amazing and elegant outlook to the applications it helps develop.
- Swift is an effective programming language against errors with enhanced readability.
- Apple claims that Swift is about 2.6 times faster than Objective-C and 8.4 times faster than Python.
- Swift proves to be good for nothing when it comes to older versions of iOS and its applications.
- Although it is an open-source programming language, the community is not that developed compared to other coding languages.
To overcome the challenges faced by developers while writing code, Google decided to develop the Go programming language. Go is considered to be highly agile and suitable for developing scalable web entities. A surge has been observed in its demand and is expected to grow more by 2021.
- Go programming language provides the facility of smart coding that requires fewer code lines.
- The ease of use and the adoptive environment this language provides makes it outshine other programming languages.
- Errors are no more a problem as the language consists mainly of single-line codes.
- Go lacks library support since it is a new and young language paving for its future acceptance.
- The language lags because go does not provide any GUI library.
- Go is not as versatile as other programming languages since it is suitable and recommended only for Google-based applications.
R, invented in New Zealand at the University of Auckland by Ross IhakaR and Robert Gentleman, is a programming language developed with a principal focus on Machine Learning and is mostly suitable for Data Analysis. It is an open-source software environment that provides users with exceptional statistical features.
- R is a versatile language that can work on Mac, Linux as well as Windows.
- The quality of the graphs that R provides is just extraordinary.
- It is compatible with other programming languages as well.
- R consumes more memory as compared to other programming languages. While dealing with Big Data, R is not a good choice.
- R is less secure and not the best choice for designing web pages and web applications.
- It is slower than other programming languages like Python.
- One needs to have coding expertise since the language is difficult to work with.
- Programmers with no or low coding experience with packages may find trouble while dealing with algorithms.
Just like Google developed Go, it also introduced the world with Kotlin programming language in 2011. Codes written in Kotlin can work well on Java and vice versa. Kotlin is also comparable to Python in many ways, so learning Kotlin won’t be a major issue for you if you already know about Python.
It is open-source with no license requirement and provides a friendly environment to the developers, and works efficiently. Google has declared that Kotlin is its official programming language.
- A developer doesn’t need to learn a new IDE as Kotlin has IDE support.
- The maintenance is easy and avoids bugs to the maximum.
- It is a mature language that is reliable and secure to use.
- Learning resources are confined since Kotlin is actually not Java.
- There is a variation in compilation speeds when we compare Java with Kotlin. Java is good for a clean building, while Kotlin is best for creating incremental builds.
- Switching from Java to Kotlin can prove difficult for some developers who are already coding with Java.
Scala is yet another effort to overcome the challenges faced by Java programmers. It is not only an object-oriented programming language but a functional programming language as well. It was released in 2004 and aimed at easing the issues that developers face when they require a high standard language without too many complexities.
- It is fast and efficient since it evaluates a variable as per requirement.
- It provides hybrid features of both Object-Oriented programming and functional programming.
- Scala is an excellent choice for analyzing data.
- With Scala, codes are of better quality. There is a lesser coding requirement with minimal bugs.
- It becomes complicated for developers due to the mix-up of object-oriented and functional features.
- It will require time and money to train workers to learn the features of Scala. The reason behind this is simple; Scala developers are not in-demand.
- Resources are limited as the community is not that huge.
IN A NUTSHELL:
Although there are a plethora of top programming languages, it is a crystal-clear fact that Python and Java rule the coding world. All coding languages have their own distinct pros and cons. The final choice depends on the developer’s needs and requirements to go for the best possible option.